The challenge in prostate cancer (PCa) is to match the aggressiveness of the treatment to that of the cancer. Until recently, all screen-diagnosed localized cancers were considered at least potentially aggressive and in most cases were treated radically. Active surveillance represented a major step forward in acknowledging that some cancers were clinically insignificant and did not pose a threat to the patient’s life. Recently, a third option—focal therapy—has emerged as a potential middle ground between radical treatment and active surveillance.
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